The Life, Works and Ideas of Mevlana
(The Great Mystic Jalaladdin Rumi)
By Prof. Dr. Adnan Karaismailoğlu
Jalaladdin Mohammed, who is called by names of especially Mevlana, Mevlevi, Hüdavendigar and Mollayı Rum and rarely Belhi, Rumi Konevi, was born Belh City, which is located todey in north of Afganistan. He spent his childhood years within great meterial and sipiritual wealth possessed by his father Bahauddin Veled in Belhi City who was a member of a family training learned scholars and then, his motherland become Konya City. His life family dervish convet in Konya and his ideas and his views reflected in his works carried him to our present in very lively and vigorous form. First of all, he was accepted as a pioneer of a cocept remining divene love, grace elegance, love and to tolerance and he aimed to present Islamic belief yo hearts with this view and thought.
Certain important dates related to the life of Mevlana and paths of Mevlana can the recorded as follows:
– Birth of Mevlana in Belh city, 6 September 1207
– Emigration from Belh city together with his family. 1212 or 1221
– After going to Haj, passing to Anatolia through Damascus and following stays in certain cities and while residing in Larende, Mevlana married to Gevher Hatun: Larende (Karaman) 1225
– Birth of Sultan Veled, son of Mevlana: Larende 1226
– Arrival at Konya: 1229
– Death of Great Scholar, Bahauddin Veled: Konya – 12 January 1231
– Death of Seyyid Burhaneddin: Kayseri, 1240-1241
– Arrival of at Konya: 23 October 1244
– First departure of Şems-i Tebriz from Konya:1246
– Disappearance from sight of Şems who turned many requests: 1247
– Mevlana assigning jeweler from Konya Selahaddin as Caliph: 1249
– Death of Mevlana: 17 December 1273
– Death of Hüsameddin Çelebi an ascend of Sultan Veled to position: 1284
– Death of sultan Veled, son of Mevlana and his son Arif Çelebi taking his place: 11 November 1312
– Closing up Mevlana Dervish convent together with Dervish lodges and Recluse’s Cells and establishment of Leadership position by Mohammed Bakır Çelebi in Aleppo: 4 September 1925
– Death of last sheik of Mevlana convent with ceremony as museum: 2 March 1927
– Death of Mohammed Bakır Çelebi: 1943
– Abolishment of position establishment in Aleppo by Syrian state: 1944
Bahauddin Veled, son of Hüseyin, son of Ahmet Hatibi, father of Mevlana called by names of Sultan of Scholars and our master, used to live in Belh city as effective scholar and Sufi. It is recorded that he was a student of Sheik Necmeddin-I Kübra (Death: 1221) being founder of Kübreviyye dervish order and his line in dervish order is reached to Ahmet-i Gazzali (Death: 1123).
In Belh city being one of important centers of Islamic world, there were confusion in scientific and political atmosphere in first half XIII. Century so, father of Mevlana felt discomfort from this atmosphere and preferred emigration together with all members of his family and close circles. He started traveling for the purpose of pilgrimage by going around cities such as Nishabur, Baghdad, Mecca, Damascus and eventually arrived to Anatolia great interest concern was extend to the family throughout traveling. Mevlana met with many famous scholars, learned men and Sufis during his first travel with his father, and witnessed their chat and discussions when they arrived at Larende, today’s Karaman, a period was entered during which important developments where experienced for Mevlana and his family. Probably, Mevlana got married with Gevher Hatun, daughter of Hace Lala Serafeddin-i Semerkendi included in the convoy during seven years elapsed over-here and his two sons and Sultan Veled and Alaaddin Çelebi were born. His mother Mumine Hatun called by name of mother of Sultan died. When they arrived at Konya City, Sultan Alaaddin Keykubat and his Emirs met them with great interest and concern. After arrival at Konya city, leader of family, Bahauddin Veled died at the age of 80 and it was requested from young Mevlana to take place his scholar, tutor, mufti father. Seyyid Burhaneddin from Timmir being discipline of his father came to Konya to see his sheik (head of religious order) after one year, and was occupied with Sufism training and education of Mevlana who basically learned theological knowledge from his father and also, made suggestions and guide in respect with to complete his training and education in Aleppo city and Damascus. After nine years following their meeting, Seyyid Burhaneddin, who left deep impressions by introducing moral and spiritual traits of his father to him, died in Kayseri City. After five years from this event, Şems-i Tebrizi came to Konya City, and discussions and debates haled between them caused great effect and influence. As a result of reactions of people who could not bear his close relation with Şems and not being concerned with them as in the past time, according to Eflaki, Şems left Konya after 16 months. However, this departure did not achieve any satisfactory result for those who envied him, again, Mevlana did not extend any interest and concern with people around him. People who observed this situation and upon demand off Mevlana, his son, Sultan Veled, first of all, explained to Şems that before experienced bitterness would not have been repeated again and then convinced him and so, they returned from Damascus to Konya together. But, departure become inevitable for the same reasons and this relation which continued for three years period, was now totally ended. Following this meeting and departure effecting Mevlana very deeply, Mevlana assigned the illiterate Jeweler Selahaddin as his caliph first and constantly, intimate companion and got his son, Sultan Veled married to his daughter Fatma Hatun. Those years were period, during which he sought peace and harmony and quietness, calm and narrated his problems, love and excitement in his lyric poems and quatrains. His relation with jeweler Selaaddin continued for ten years period. After a certain period following his death, he assigned Hüsameddin Çelebi with same capacity. He spent last fourteen – fifteen years of his life by narrating Mesnevi. Encourager and inscriber of this work were Hüsameddin Çelebi.
From wedlock of Mevlana to Gevher Hatun, Sultan Veled and Mohamed Alaaddin were born and after her death, Mevlana married to Kına Hatun and from this wedlock, Alim Çelebi and Melike Hatun were burn. Sultan Veled was found in the post of Mevlana and descendants coming from his son, Ulu Arif Çelebi (1320). Mevlana, who lived in a century during which for many Sufis lived and many dervish followers were spread and increased, met with many famous persons from important Islamic cities. Anyway, Konya city that was protected from Mongolian Invasion at that time was in position of city, which was visited by important scholars, and sheiks and some of them resided here. For example, it will be sufficient to give an idea only to name the following people: Sheik Sadreddin from Konya (1274) who took lessons from his stepfather. Ibn-i arabi (1240), famous, Sufi poet, Fahruddin-i İrak-i (1289) who attended to lesson study series of sheik Sadreddin, Siraceddin (Death: 1283) from Urumiye Kutbeddin (Death: 1310) from Shiraz Safiyyudin-i Hindi (Death: 1315). There were famous leaders of dervish order such as İbn-i Arabi(Death: 1240), Evhaduddin-i Kirvani (Death: 1238), Sihhabeddin Subrevendi (Death 1254) among people who visited Konya City in first quarter of this century.
Mevlana living his life in Konya City being capital of Anatolian Seljuk and having great and important influence on people together with statesmen, caused his name to be remembered in certain historical, political and idea developments.
There are different tales, narratives and views, opinions on certain dates and events related to biography of Mevlana. For example, his family and year when his family emigrated from Belh City and people whom he met during that time and disappearance of Şems-i Tebriz and similar aspects are these types. Generally, data and information are based on İbtidaname of Sultan Veled, pamphlets (2) of Sipehselar and Menakibul’e – arifin of Eflaki.
Existence of conflicting expression in those works, especially in Menaksbul -arifin, prepared grand for mentioned differences. It is difficult to state that last period researches conducted on life story of Mevlana have reached to a find point while H. Ritter was writing a short biography “… Despite some incompleteness, it may be said as first criticizing biography of Mevlana work by Beziuzzaman-ı Furuzenfer titled as” Risale den tahkik-i ahval and Zındegani-i Mevlana Celaleddin Mohamed (Teheran 1953), preface written as “Veledname” (İbtidaname 1937) published by Celaleddin-i Humai and articles of H. Ritter (4) and book by Abdülbaki Gülpınarlı titled as “Mevlana Celaleddin” (lstanbul 1951) “still bear their importance on this subject matter. Some works especially written in pension on this subject during recent years present beautiful features with dealing with subject-matter. However they could not resolve problems related to biography of Mevlana. Benefit and use can be obtained among them from titled as “Pile La Mülakat-i Huda (Teheran 1990) By A. Zerrinkub, being Persian language and literature professor and pamphlet for Mesnevi published by Mohamed-i Istilam (Teheran 1990). Work titled “Sevanih-i Mevlevi-yi Rumi” (5) by Şıbli-i Numani and work titled as “The life and work of Jalal-ud-din Rumi” (6) by Efzel İkbal are important from viewpoint of including information contained in resource out the following works as samples of wars written in the west: Reynold A. Nicholson, Rumi, Poet and Mystic London 1980. Annemarie Schimmel, The Triumphal Sun, A Study of Life and Works of Jalaladdin of Rumi, London 1980; – I am Wind, you are Fire, Boston 1992; Eva de Vitray Meyerovitch Mystique et Poese en Islam Jalel-od-Din Rumi et L’ordre dervishes tourneurs, Paris 1973; William Chittick, The Sufi Path of love (The Spiritual Teachings of Rumi) Albany 1983.
Works of Hamid Vehbi (8), Osman Behçet (9), Veled Çelebi İzbudak (10), Şefik Can (11) and similar works can be said to represent view related to Mevlana in the Ottoman Culture by information (7) regarding to life of Mevlana in head sections of Turkish commentaries.
Mevlana, using poem by means of symbols and meanings especially in Divan-ı Kebir which consists of almost lyrics and quatrains and in his other works. In his Mesnevi (Mystical poems of Mevlana Jalaladdin Rumi, he fallowed with informative and teaching manner and religious and Sufi information and concept and attitude enlivened till the years that he lived were dealt. For this reason, his Mesnevi including about twenty six thousand couplets drew more interest and attention in the world and classification and dictionary studies as per commentaries, translations, selection and subjects on very wide field for many centuries. There are hundreds and hundreds written copy (12) of Mesnevi Mainly in Konya Mevlana Museum Library ten couplets (4). Commentaries mode with the Ottoman Turkish of Mesnevi have an important correctness in this sense and also, commentator referred differences at paces in various inscribed copies. As a result of these differences keeping busy and occupied scientists, writings showing copy differences such as Mesnevi inscription (writing) at No: 5547 in Konya Yusufaga Library and mentioned works of Abdullatif B. Abdullah as well as criticizing text of Mesnevi prepared by R.A. Nicholson related to recent centuries are, at the present time, reputable publications in the world (15).
Total couplets number of Mesnevi consisting of six “books” is 25632 as per publication of Nicholson and is 25673 in commentary of Gölpınarlı respectively. Finally, Mesnevi was publishes in form of criticising text by Mohamed-i Isti’lami (Teheran 1990). Author states that he preperad this work by taking Cairo – Darul Kutub dated 668 Hegira, copy in (17) and copy in Mevlana Museum toted 677 Hegira and another undated copy at the same place in consideration so, he based his work on reputable and valid copies, and in consequence, he adds that when he made comparison with issue of Nicholson, hundreds of conflicts and disagreements have come out and more correct and true ones were contained in his publication (17). The sections named ”Certification and Dependency” of this publication being in 6 volume form in the identity of a new commentary.
The work completed during recent years being one of commentaries written on Mesnevi in Iran by M. Taki Caferi consisting of 15 volumes and titled as ”Interpretation and Analysis of Mesnevi” (Teheran 1970-1975) is one of the important works in this field (15th volume Mucem-i eş’ar Teheran 1988) and also Şerh-i Cami-i Mesnevi-Manevi (1- III- Teheran 1993-1995 its publication is being carried on) by Kerim-i Zamani is an important work.
It is known that Feridun Nafiz Uzluh who achieved publication of ”Mektubat-i” and ”Mecalis-i Seb’a” (Istanbul 1937) of Mevlana, after publication of Nicholson, is in preparation to be published a criticising Mesnevi, and already got first ferments printed. However, I have no knowledge about course of this attempt, which is understood to have failed.
Furthermore, the most reputable and valid copy of Mesnevi of which copying was completed in 1278 by Mohamed b. Abdullah, existing in Konya Mevlana Museum (No: 5), was published in same- printing form in Teheran (1992) and Ankara (1993). Especially, second publication realized very carefully by the Ministry of Culture of the Turkish Republic, has met a great requirement.
Writen copies of “Divan-ı Kebir” (Great Poem-verses) called with another name “Külliyet-i Şemsi” are less in number in comparison with Mesnevi and require criticism and classification as per contained poems. While there were 36.360 couplets (verses) in first publication with criticism prepared by B. Furuzenfer (I-VII – Teheran 1966), translation of 44.834 verses are included in translation of Divan-ı Kebir made by A. Gölpınarlı from the written copy numbered 68-69 existing in Mevlana Museum Library The volume of this work by which it was determined that poems of other poets were included in this work reaches to 50 thousand verses with the handwritten and printed ones. Also, number of quatrains of Mevlana mostly contained in this work differs in publications. Number of quatrains is 1642 in publication by Veled Çelebi (Istanbul 1986) translated by M.Nuri Gençosman of which publication was completed in 1896 in Istanbul and 1765 quatrains in 1765 in translation by Gölpınarlı (Quatrains, Istanbul 1982), and is 1995 at the end of publication of Furuzenfer.
Other works of Mevlana exist in “Fihi ma fih” and “Mecalis-i Seba” consisting of his speeches and preachings and in “Mekubat” in which about 150 letters written by him to different statesmen, scholars, scientists and persons, and various writings, manuscripts and prints. (18).
Important works have been prepared classifying subjects of Mesnevi to increase possibility of benefit and use and bringing related verses together or putting forth some certain subjects as based on Mesnevi. “Lubb-i Lubab-ı Mesnevi” (published, Said-i Nesifi Teheran 1983) of Huseyn-i Vaiz-i Kaşifi (Death 1504-1505) is the first and important work in this respect. Work of our present time named “Mevleviname” (Mevlevi çi mi guyed I-II Teheran 1990) by Celaleddin-i Humai and “Sirr-i Ney” (Teheran 1993) by Abduhuseyn-i Zerrinkub and “The Essence of Rumi’s Masnavi” (Ankara 1997) by Erkan Türkmen are also important works in the same way.
Works have been prepared to reach to verses, meanings and interpretations in Mesnevi (Masnavi) easily. Work titled as Keşifu’l, ebyat-ı Mesnevi (Isfahan 1984) by Mohammed Cevad-i Seriet includes alphabetic index of Verses contained in publication of Nicholson and extended work titled as “El derya be- derya” (I-IV- Teheran 1364-1365) by Mohamed Taki-i Cafer includes index of meaningful works and verses.
There are for many numbers of books and articles written in the East and West in respect with the works, thoughts and sayings of Mevlana Determination and classification of these type works require longer time.
Serious steps have been taken in this field with bibliographic work titled as “Bibliography of Mevlana” and “Book about Mevlevi Sect” referred previously.
When the Turkish books and articles written about Mevlana compared, they are really based on very different grounds. There are uncompromising points between thoughts of Mevlana put forth in their commentaries of Mesnevi and in certain works of Ismailı Ankaravi (Death: 1631), Sarı Abdullah Efendi (Death: 1660), Ismail Hakkı from Bursa (Death: 1725), Abidin Paşa (Death: 1908) and Tahirul – Mevlevi (Death: 1951) and ideas of Mevlana (19) which were introduced by A. Gölpınarlı (Death: 1982), and determined and evaluated by M.Nazif Şahinoğlu. It is possible to see and observe this difference from point of view in our present time publications printed in different languages and meetings organized.
Mesnevi (Masnavi) maintains an important place among ethical and literary books listened, read and lead to social concept and attitude unity as from little ages though centuries in Anatolia. Under frame of mystical (Sufic) concept, it is possible to find in the works of Mevlana and especially in his Mevlevi meaning of hundreds and hundreds of words and terms such as love, patience, effort, show, trust in God, resignation, science, perception, comprehension, intelligence, reality-imitation, meaning, sense modesty. These works include thoughts and behavior, attitude showing improvement and formed in Islamic World till VIII/XIII. century, verses of Koran and deeds and sayings of the prophet experienced in life and saying, stories and anecdotes spoken among people. While all of these aspects are referred in commentaries of Mesnevi made in different Languages, on the other hand, works such as “Ayat-ı Mesnevi (Muhmud-i Dergahi- Teheran 1370 Hegira / 1991)” Ehadis-i Mesnevi (B.Furuzanfer, Teheran 1348 H / 1969)”, “Mea’hiz-i kasas and Temsilet-i Mesnevi (B. Furuzenfer, Teheran 1333 H/1954) were also prepared.
In addition, references were made to these aspects in some publications of works of Mevlana and at the ends of translations of Mesnevi and Divan-ı Kebir by A. Gölpınarlı. Verses (Couplets) of Mevlana form an important source in “Emsal and Hikem (dihhuda, I-IV – Teheran 1308-1311 H) where in Persian proverbs and epigrams were pointed out.
Mevlevi thought which formed basis of own life and works of Mevlana, started to become instituted by efforts of his son, Sultan Veled and known by name of Tarike-i Mevleviyye (Mevlevi sectarianism, Mevlevi dervish sect). Konya Mevlana dervish convent being center, more than hundred dervish convents located in various geographic locations such as Samsun Bayburt, Erzincan, Tebriz, Diyarbakır, Kerkük, Baghdad, Aleppe, Beirut, Jerusalem, Mecca, Cairo, Morocco, Crete, Rhodes, Phillipe, Sarajevo have been performing religions, mystical and cultural duties and missions throughout the history to the extent causing execution of descriptions such as Mevlevi literature, Mevlevi music, Mevlevi poets, Mevlevi customs and practices. Especially, they have achieved to get a significant place in Turkish culture and history. Mevlevi Sultans and statesmen, scholars sheiks, poets and artists reflected concept and customs, practices and attitude gained from this source in every activity in each sector of communitiy. Very different evaluations are being made at our present time about Mevlevi dervish sect which at times and sometimes internal conflicts. In actual fact, writings, conveyed epics related to Mevlana and his circle as well as commentaries, interpretations and analyses about his thoughts and ideas within a long period extended from XIII. century till the end of XX. century, constitute a huge amount. While this accumulation assures a possibility to know and understand Mevlana, but, at the same time, creates great difficulties.
There are expressions of divine love and high manner in works of Mevlana. World, terms, symbols, abbreviations used to convey these feelings require mystical, Sufic comments and explanations for the reader. Their explanations exist in the works of Sufi, mystic persons who had lived before as well as they exist especially in his own work, Mesnevi. However, letters and words deemed by him apprehending meanings, are not always adequate to narrate and explain his great and high feelings and theories. In such cases, he restricts himself and feels anxious and apprehensive about having been misunderstood or not understood with expressions such as “These topics can be said up to here. Whatever occurs afterwards must be kept as a secret. It would be useless even you try to explain. If you attempt and try to explain hundreds times, again, it would be useless. (Mesnevi: VI 4620-4621)”. He feels to express in first verses of his Mesnevi as, “I have cried in every community and been together with bad and good attitudes. Everybody has become my friend in accordance with their thoughts, but not sought secrets inside me”. However, he presents resolutions to troubles and problems of people in the world in decisive and determined manner in his advises and recommendations which would form thousands and thousands verses following his said verses, and he tries to open his mind, path by divine realities. For this reason, his works are a large source for people who know what they are seeking.
He shows to get rid of dependency on worldly goods and property and to become contented with what one has and to leave great and ambition (Mevlevi, 19-21). He explains with religions knowledge that superior side of perspective emerges by way of wisdom, knowledge and generosity. (1.1497-1527). Spirit is friend with science and wisdom (II. 56). When a dog even learns science, it hunts a lawful prey. (II. 2363).
He insistently emphasizes a person being conscious: “You faithful devotee, for God’s Sake, for God’s Sake be careful, although you may benefit from sham as far as possible, but you must not say that, I saw that sultan (Sheik) crying and I cried like him. Because this will be a deny. Ignorance, sham and crying full of suspicion is not like crying of that trustworthy sheik. (V. 1301-1307) and in his expressions, reasons for working, efforts are very distinct,” The loss caused because he person does not work, but those who benefit by working. Faith is right path, and also working of person is right (VI. 403.407)” and his recommendation in respect is as follows:
“If you are going to trust God first, you must work. Work so that you can rely on and trust God (1.947)”. He explains to be embellished by good characteristics and to be peaceful and to render peaceful atmosphere. The first and general feature of it is ethic and modesty: “Person avoiding from ethics will ruin honor of humanity and dignity of humanity (III 4018)”. “Let us wish from the God to be good mannered. Mannered one will be deprived from kindness of god. Bad-mannered person would not only cause harm to himself, but even puts all world on fire (1.78-79)”. Companionship are beautifully described by sayings of Mevlana “Be friend, so, see numerous friends, or you have no friends, you will be without any help (VI, 498)”. “While you rejoice with happiness of your friend, then, this world would seen, to you as rose gardens (IV, 2372)”. “If a person being with his friends will be considered to be in rose garden even if he remains inside bath fire (IV, 1976)”. Appearance-meaning outer appearance-meaning outer appearance-self, essence, body, sprit relation and understanding of self and sprit and showing care for them, are special topics of Mesnevi. Necessity, ways to overtime appearance, forms frequently take place in this work. “You, worshipper to appearance, till what time you will show care and attention to appearance? Your meaningless life could not be saved from appearance and imitation (9.1018) “Pens never praise appearance, and Qualities such as being scholar and fair have been clarified in the copy-books. Knowledge and having justice always have full meanings. You can not find them in front, at rear, outward visible locations (1.1024-1025)”. Mevlana gives great importance to love and richness of world of heart, and shows this as source of peaceful resolutions, “This world is large earthen water jar and heart is river. This world is a room and heart is a city full of surprising, wonderful things.(IV, 811)”. “Rose garden growing and becoming green or soil will be destroyed, but rose garden growing in heart is so beautiful (VI. 4650)”. You should know that taste is from internal side not from external side and you should know that desiring villas, pavilions and palaces is stupidity (V.3420)”. It is necessary to enter relief and spaces in plains of world. Because there is no contentment in the plain of the heart. A friend, heart is a reliable place. There are fountains and rose garden with rose garden in (III 514 -515)”
Love almost-in fact gained meaning in language of Mevlana. Love was inside a box hidden in his heart. Şems from Tebriz was the key of the box and path was opened for cascade waterfall. First of all his lyric poems and verses (quatrains) witnessed his love. Comprehension of his feelings after his meeting with Şems and his poems related to this period that was very difficult for people around him and successors.
Concepts and notions related to love and its influence seen in thousands and thousands couplets were addressed to specially equipped hearts: “O my God how charming and pleasant is out love and how beautiful! O my God! Our whirling is from that life fountain, not from flute and tambourines. O my God! (Lyric poem No: 94)”. “O our beautiful love, rejoice! O physician of our all diseases, O medicine of our pride and honor! O Plato, taught man, O Calinus! (Mesnevi 123-24)”.
“If a petson does not have trend forwards love he/she is like a bird without wings. What a pity for him! (1.31)”
“I am in love with my troubles and sorrow, and suffering for consent of my only Sultan. I am making grief soil kohl to my eyes. The tears the people shed are pearls, but the people assume them to be tears. (1.1778-1780)”
Examples from Masnavi:
“Waves of peace come and eliminate hatted from hearts.
On the contrary, waves of war come and make loves upside down.
Love makes pains to become sweet. Because essence of love is leading on the right path. (Masnavi 1.2578-2580).
Turbid water becomes clear and limpid from love.
The dead return to life by love. Sultans become slaves by love. (II 1530-1531)
Language of many Indians and Turkey is same but, many two Turks are like being stranger to each other. So, proximity language is another language. Unity of hearts is beteer than the proximity of language.
Hundred thousands of translations come out from heart without any word, mark and writing .(1. 1206-1208)
Right of mother comes after right of God because he entrusted your embryo to her.
He gave share from her body and gave peace and ability to her to bear you.
So, She saw you as part attached to her. Divine dispensation of God separated the attached one.
God created thousands and thousands of art and technology, hence mother enveloped you by love. (III. 321-328)
“O Muslim, you ask for a little ethics. Ethics is only to be patient towards ill-mannered. The person complaining about bad character, habit and temper of other person will speak ill about ill tempered, because he himself is ill tempered.
Person with good-temper is one becoming silent towards bad tempered persons, and who can bear bad characters (Masnavi: IV 771-774).
“Knowledge is sovereignty seal of Exalted Suleyman. All-world is corpse; science is spirit (Masnavi 1-1030).
The desire of Spirit is towards wisdom and sciences. Whereas, the desire of the body is towards garden, green area, grapes. Spirit desires strongly exaltation and journey, body desires grass, food (Masnavi III- 4438-4439)”.
“Science of heart bears them, body sciences are a burden on them.
If science reflects to heart, if will be helpful. If science reflects to body, if will be a burden. (Masnavi 1. 3446-3447)”
“To teach science and technology to person with bad character means giving a sword to bandits.
Giving sword to a drunker one is better than non-human learning science. Knowledge, property, position and power will become mischief in the hands of persons with bad character (Masnavi IV – 1436-1438).
Examples from Quatrain Verses:
Person living with his friend in harmony will not become without companions. Person having good understanding with customer, will never be bankrupt. Moon stayed so bright and shining because it was not frightened to nighttime. Rose obtain such fragrance because it was harmonized with thorn (Quatrain verses of Mevlana. Translated by M.N. Gençosman . No. 211)”.
“I told you not to sit down with grieved companies. Never leave pleasant character merry companions. When you arrive at vineyard do not go to thorny side. Do not concern with others, but rose, jasmine, ivy Roses (Quatrain No: 1199).
“Whichever direction I prostrate myself, it is place to worship Him.
Even if at six directions and out of this, it is the God.
Vineyard, rose, nightingale, sky are beautiful, but all of them are excuse it is Him all the time sought and desired. (Quatrain verse No: 206)”
“You come to vineyard and see green dressed beautiful women. Look at shops selling roses at every comer.
Rose says to nightingale by laughing “Be quiet, be quite so that you should watch this quiet spring. (Quatrain verse No: 501).
Examples from Lyric Poems
“I know from where reddish rose is wearing dress, willow is like pedestrian in row.
Poor nightingale suffers so much from rose. Oh, what things it makes. Iris with a sword and jasmine with a shield sound the recites of war. How the poor nightingale suffers from that of rose. O, whatever it does.
Each bride of garden says that that rose gives signal towards them. Whereas, nightingale says that that is rose, and puts coquettish for the poor nightingale, himself.
Plane tree lifted its hands up by crying, I can tell you why it prays. Who puts cap on head of bud, and who makes backside of violet bent double?
Actually fall season caused too much suffering and pain Look. How spring behaves with fidelity and loyalty.
What fall season had looted, spring has arrived and gives it back.
To remember rose, nightingale and beauties of garden are all excuses. Why are they remembered?
This is love effort, otherwise, how can a tongue explain God’s greatness?
Semseddin being praise of Tabriz and world- again- is watching your willingness (Verses of Şems, Lyric poem No: 1000).
“Come and let us know our values, so all of sudden, we should not remain away from each other.
Since religious man is the mirror of good faith, so why we turn our face away from mirror.
Noble generous persons sacrifice their lives for their true friends. Stop acting like dogs, we are human, too.
Why do we not read as prayer “Kul e’uzu” and “Kul Huvellahu” for our love to each other?
Bad intentions darken friendship. Why do we not expel these dropping down from heart?
You will remember nicely when I die, why do we like dead ones, and we are the enemy of living ones?
Since you will make peace after death, so why are we distress and discomfort with your sorrow for lifetime?
Now, accept my death and make peace and covenant, because we are like dead persons in peace.
Since you will kiss top of my cemetery, you should kiss my cheek, now, we have the same features.
O my heart, be silent like a dead, for this language, we
are accused being selfish. (Lyric poem No: 1535).
“Go and put your head on pillow and leave me alone, me, leave me in ruined, sleepless and suffering condition.
We are wave of love, we are alone day and night. Whether you should come and forgive or go and torment.
Run away from me, so you should not go into trouble, choose safe path, leave trouble path.
Tears and we have sheltered under grief corner. Erect hundreds of mills on our tears.
We have a cruel beauty, she has a heart like a rock. She would kill, nobody pays her blood money.
Shah of beauties should not necessarily show fidelity and loyalty. O pale faced lover, you, be patient and show fidelity. I have a trouble, which can only be solved by death.
Well, how can I say it to you to remedy this trouble.
I saw a sheik last night in love quarter, and he signed by
his head meaning as to come to us.
If there is a dragon on path, love is like diamond “For goodness sake repel dragon by light of this diamond.
That is enough, I am not well, if you are skilful and able to read history of Ebu Ali. Make reminder of Bul’l Ali (Lyric Poem No: 2039).
Examples from Fihi Ma Fih
“Bad scholar is a person who is receiving help from gentlemen, and improved for reason of gentlemen and finding right path eventually. By surmise and apprehension that gentlemen should show kindness to him and respect him and give him high-ranking position and by feeling fear from them, so that he had started studying and his affairs were put in order for reason of gentlemen.
As a result, his ignorance turned into knowledge. When he becomes a scholar, he behaves well with good manners from fear and punishment of them and willingly or unwillingly he finds right and true path. Now, whatever may it may be whether gentleman comes to visit him seemingly, or he visits gentleman in any case, visit is him and visited one is gentleman. However if a scholar does not gain knowledge for reason of gentlemen and either before or after, his knowledge is gained for God, then, this is a different case. As fish can not survive other than inside water, if you could not do anything else bearing of this learned man is only to go to the right path, this is inherited in his character and habit. It is wisdom, which makes this scholar walk on right path with precaution. Regardless they had respected him in his time or not, everybody becomes wary of his majesty and asks for help from his high light and reflection. Even if such a scholar would have gone to the door of gentleman in actual fact, visiting one is gentleman and visited one is scholar. (Fihi ma fih translated by A. Gölpnarli page: 1).
“It is the problem showing right path to man and even in every affairs. Regardless, man starts on whatsoever work, if problem of that work, desire and inclination of that work have of that work would not arise from his heart, then man could not attempt to execute that work That work would not be so easy for him without problem. Whether this world or the next world. Whether should be shopping or sultanate, whether to be knowledge or star or anyone else all of them are like this. (Fihi ma fi, page 17).
Feeling thankful and grateful is hunting, fastening blessing and benefaction. Be prepared for increase of benefaction whenever you hear the sound of thankfulness. If God likes a man, then He subjects such man to tests and troubles. If man shows patience, then God chooses him and he feels thankful, God will bring him to a selective position among his equals. There are some men who feel thankful to God due to their distress and but also there are some men who feel thankful to God due His generosity and bounty. Each one of them is good, auspicious, because, feeling thankful is panacea, and changes distress into bounty (Fihi Ma, Fih page 155).